A NOVEL APPROACH FOR CLEAN ENERGY VIA TRAIN

Abstract:

An Innovative method of generating clean energy in a fast moving vehicle (train) by various courses. The energy generated from this method is produced as the consequences of human activity. Here we implement three methods to produce energy.

Main Article:

 

           One of the biggest obstacles to the widespread use of wind power generation is that many areas just aren’t that windy. The alternative form of wind energy produced by trains is very unique, as it does not depend on any natural energy resource. A moving train compresses the air in the front of it and pushes the air from its sides thereby creating a vacuum at its rear and its sides as it moves forward. To fill up this vacuum a mass of airflow rushes into the sides and the rear. The kinetic energy of the wind movement thus created can be used to generate electricity.

           Roof renovations are integrating solar cell modules into traditional roof materials in order to generate clean energy. This system will promote the effective use of roof space.

           Way of disposing of such a vast quantity of human waste & distributing it along the tracks, a place guaranteed to be uninhabited, to sterilize in the searing tropical sun these biodegradable wastes shall be used to produce clean energy & stabilization of wastes. Use of bio-degradable waste has been effective in power production. Bio-degradable waste undergoes a process of anaerobic digestion after which they are subjected to Induction Heating. Methane gas is produced, which then powers the methanol fuel cells.

          The energy is generated without any interference of the normal train operation. This generated electricity can be further used.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Waste to Energy, clean energy, solar panels, Wind Turbines, Bio-degradable waste, etc.

I.INTRODUCTION:

            All human activities require energy: food to sustain us and enable our mobility, gasoline for our automobiles and transportation, electricity for our lights, heating and air conditioning. Sources and quantum of fossil energy are dwindling day by day and getting exhausted at a very fast rate. Hence conservation, tapping new sources of energy and harnessing of the same from the various non-conventional sources, is an important aspect of energy production/conservation and utilization all over the world.

           Renewable energy from wind and solar is sustainable and does not lead to increase carbon dioxide emissions. The idea of a train being able to utilize its very infrastructure to generate electricity is very fascinating. Generating power by harnessing the wind energy created by fast moving trains is a new idea.

          The spurt in population explosion globally has resulted in severity of energy crisis. Our dependency and usage of coal has dragged it to the point of extinction and has resulted in severe environmental pollution. The alternative to come over this adversity is to use renewable sources. Many proposed techniques in the past, have not used these resources to their fullest potential. A source which is readily available, socio-economic had to be used. This led to the idea of generating electric power from domestic waste incorporating induction heating. This proposed technique ensures complete utilization of domestic waste, with a meagre amount of effluents being emanated into the atmosphere. This process does not involve any sophisticated mechanism and ensures complete safety. This method of power production paves way to less diligence and can be produced in the place where we reside.

           The hunger for alternative forms of energy continues and therefore we have generated hope.

II.CURRENT SCENARIO:

         With increasing environmental concern, and approaching limits to fossil fuel consumption, wind and solar power has regained interest as a renewable energy source. This new generation of wind mills and solar produces electric power and is more generally used for all applications, which requires power.

          World primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on an average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Modern renewable energies grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010.

III. FIELD DATA

A.    Solar Energy:

          Solar power, a clean renewable resource with zero emission, has got tremendous potential of energy which can be harnessed using a variety of devices. With recent developments, solar energy systems are easily available for industrial and domestic use with the added advantage of minimum maintenance. Solar energy could be made financially viable with government tax incentives and rebates. An exclusive solar generation system of capacity of 250 to KWh units per month would cost around Rs. 5 Lakhs, with present pricing and taxes. Most of the developed countries are switching over to solar energy as one of the prime renewable energy source. The current architectural designs make provision for photo voltaic cells and necessary circuitry while making building plans. India's power sector has a total installed capacity of approximately 1, 46,753 Megawatt (MW) of which 54% is coal-based, 25% hydro, 8% is renewables and the balance is the gas and nuclear-based. Power shortages are estimated at about 11 % of total energy and 15% of peak capacity requirements and are likely to increase in the coming years. In the next 10 years, another 10,000 MW of capacity and investment of about Rs. 24 lakh crore are required. Fortunately, India lies in sunny regions of the world. Most parts of India receive 4-7 kWh of solar radiation per square metre per day with 250-300 sunny days in a year. India has abundant solar resources, as it receives about 3000 hours of sunshine every year, equivalent to over 5,000 trillion kWh. India can easily utilize the solar energy or Solar Power. Today the contribution of Solar power with an installed capacity of 9.84 MW, is a fraction « 0.1 per cent) of the total renewable energy installed 13, 242.41(as on 31st October 2008 by MNRE). Solar power generation has lagged behind other sources like wind, small hydropower, biomass etc. But now realizing the potential of solar energy, Prime Minister of India unveiled a National Climate Change Action Plan in June 2008. The plan will be implemented through eight missions with main focus on solar energy in the total energy mix of the country.

B. Wind energy:

          Wind power is one of the most efficient alternate energy sources. There has been good deal of development in wind turbine technology over the last decade with many new companies joining the fray. Wind turbines have become larger, efficiencies and availabilities have improved and wind farm concept has become popular. It could be combined with solar, especially for a total self-sustainability project. The economics of wind energy is already strong, despite the relative immaturity of the industry. The downward trend in wind energy costs is predicted to continue. As the world market in wind turbines continues to boom, wind turbine prices will continue to fall. India now ranks as a "wind superpower" having a net potential of about 45000 MW only from 13 identified states [10].

C. Biomass Energy:

         Biomass energy can play a major role in reducing India's reliance on fossil fuels by making use of thermo-chemical conversion technologies. In addition, the increased utilization of biomass-based fuels will be instrumental in safeguarding the environment, creating new job opportunities, sustainable development and health improvements in rural areas. Biomass energy could also aid in modernizing the agricultural economy. A large amount of energy is expended in the cultivation and processing of crops like sugarcane, food grains, vegetables and fruits which can be recovered by utilizing energy-rich residues for energy production. The integration of biomass-fuelled gasifies and coal-fired energy generation would be advantageous in terms of improved flexibility in response to fluctuations in biomass availability with lower investment costs. Waste-to-energy plants offer two important benefits of environmentally sound waste management and disposal, as well as the generation of clean electric power. Waste-to-energy facilities produce clean, renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical and physicochemical methods. Moreover, waste-to-energy plants are highly efficient in harnessing the untapped sources of energy from a variety of wastes [10].

D. Bio-fuels:

          India has more than 50 million Ha of wasteland, which could be utilized for cultivating plants. Jatropha is one of the options thought of by many minds for producing bio-fuels. It is a kind of plant which can come up on arid land, albeit with lower yield. There are issues such as low supply of quality seeds, technical advice, low knowledge of agencies which would buy seeds etc. But lately such agencies have come up and are offering technical advice as well as buying for further processing. Another option is coming up in bio-fuels which will beat Jatropha once the research on it is successful and scalable. Lot of it is being talked about around the world in the field of bio-fuels and is so attractive theoretically that anyone could go for it. When the output is compared in terms of oil in litre per acre, it is better than Jatropha by about 100 times. This option is Algae. The input is none other than carbon dioxide - the old foe of clean environment and light – which is aplenty. Just by using these two things algae grows, and could be used for extracting oil and then extracting bio-fuel from it. It will also act as a sink for carbon dioxide and seems to be the most attractive option [10].

E. Energy from wastes:

          Tons of wastes are generated daily in Mumbai alone. Such huge quantity of wastes generated all over India, are a huge opportunity to be tapped. Sorting is required to be done for organic and inorganic and there is a good quantity for energy needs. Some of these are converted into fuel briquettes and sold [10].

I.FIELD OF INNOVATION:

A.      Back bone

           In the prior art, energy is generated from fixed wind mills. The conventional static wind powered electricity generation systems in use, till now are dependent on wind direction, the force of the wind and a large area. But the wind is not available at all places and all time throughout the year. Moreover the force of wind is many times not adequate to generate electricity throughout the day. Therefore, there exists an immense need of a system for generating electricity from wind induced by moving trains, which is available throughout the year at various places and with sufficient force of wind.

The roof of the train is always exposed to sun, which is never used uptil now. Photovoltaic technology, which converts solar energy into a usable source, has not been widely applied to railway carriages. It can lead to considerable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions: for each kWh of energy produced by traditional plants, a reduction of 750g carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere is achieved with the photovoltaic modules. Applying photovoltaic modules to rolling-stock also has the potential to reduce dangerous waste by extending the life of accumulators. The current practice is to use a buffer system fed by a continuous current. Suspension of the energy supply sets off the accumulators which continually recharge

when run down. In a photovoltaic system, however, accumulators are kept continually charged by solar energy and, as a result, are subject to less damage. Waste recycling is promoted for both economic and environmental reasons, but the use of fresh excreta carries considerable health hazards. This Technical Brief introduces the main issues one needs to consider to both control the process and optimize the benefits gained from using human waste, whilst minimizing the threat. Therefore this invention provides a solution to the problem for generating electricity in this manner.

A.Technique:

            This invention relates to a method for generating electricity using high wind pressure generated by fast moving vehicles channeling the induced wind in the direction of the wind turbine. A typical train which is fast moving vehicle compresses the air in the front of it and pushes the air from its sides thereby creating a vacuum at its rear and its sides as it moves forward. The kinetic energy of the wind movement thus created can be used to generate electricity. The moving vehicles encounters wind may be railway trains or airplanes, will sweep off it, in a faster manner making heavy winds. During this, when a wind turbine, if fit to the moving vehicle will generate adequate amount of energy. The air flow will cause turbine to rotate and thus electricity can be produced [1].

           The amorphous silicon photovoltaic tiles have a triple junction system, meaning a deposition of three layers, each of which absorbs a different light (red, yellow and blue light). This ability to divide the spectrum is the key to the high efficiency of this type of panels.

            The human excreta are combined with animal and agricultural wastes, and water, it will give off gas as it decomposes. Given the right temperature and mix of wastes, much of the gas will be methane, which is flammable. The mix of gases produced is called ‘biogas’.

I. OBJECTS OF THE INNOVATION:

          The main object of the innovation is to provide a method and a system for generating electricity using the consequences of human activity. Easily available wind induced by moving train in transit or in operation [2].

          The other object of the invention is to provide a method and a system for generating electricity by using high wind pressure generated by moving vehicles, using this free renewable input namely air and independent of the vagaries of seasonal winds having the variation in direction and wind speeds when they do flow and that too neither at all times or places nor having the necessary force of wind to operate wind mill to generate electricity as required.

           Photovoltaic technology, which converts solar energy into a usable source, has not been widely applied to railway carriages. It can lead to considerable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The roof of the train is always exposed to sun, which is never used uptil now.

II. DESCRIPTION OF INNOVATION:

A.Capturing and Routing wind induced by train

           The moving vehicles could be railway train which running on railway track. As train run over railroad tracks, the alternative form of wind energy produced by train is very unique, as it does not depend on any natural energy resource. If the wind is properly directed towards the wind turbine blades, optimum electricity may be generated. The desired direction of wind is obtained by a means for channeling wind, in the direction of the wind turbine. Channeling of wind in a desired direction may be obtained by, at least one truncated cone or pyramid shaped housing or a pair of planar members converging towards the blades of the wind turbine.

Figure 1. Direction of wind flow

Figure 2. Direction of wind flow under rail track

           Aerodynamics is the science and study of the physical laws of the behavior of objects in an air flow and the forces that are produced by air flows. The shape of the aerodynamic profile is decisive for blade performance. Even minor alterations in the shape of the profile can greatly alter the power curve and noise level. Therefore a blade designer does not merely sit down and outline the shape when designing a new blade [4].

 

 


Rate This Article:  
No votes yet
Author:  admin
Posted On:  Thursday, 11 October, 2012 - 17:00

Leave Your Comment

CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
2 + 1 =
Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. E.g. for 1+3, enter 4.